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art bells energy antenna

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Art Bell Describes 400volts of Potential Created By His Loop Antenna
AB: I have a large antenna, one wire, two thousand foot loop, at 100 feet high, with welded wire mesh grounding below it... I get 400 volts on a clear day, and I had to come up with a device to get rid of that potential.
Free energy!
AB: I will be making a loop to go around 5 acres or so. I am telling you there is power coming from somewhere.
A good friend of mine took conductive copper wire from 1000 foot elevation to 500 foot elevation, with coils, and he got useable energy off that. The energy is coming from somewhere, and could be drawn off. This is from one version of an energy device. Sometimes these things happen purely by accident.
AB: 400 volts knocked me on my butt a few times. I put a device in there to take all that current to ground. It shocked me a lot. That power is coming from somewhere. Even the power lines around here are very low voltage, very unlikely this kind of voltage would develop. I called the power company to ask them, and you must have a bunch of long lines that are unterminated, do you measure large voltages? They said no, they must be grounded, that is by code. They just ground them to ignore this potential.
When you have intense solar activity, it can cause transients that
The woodpecker may have caused a power failure in quebec.
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art bells interveiw

Transcript of Dr. Steven Greer's Interview
on Coast to Coast AM Radio with Art Bell
December 7/8, 2003

Coast to Coast AM Web site

[During the first 10-15 minutes of the program, Mr. Bell played a rebroadcast of a hypothetical disclosure briefing by John Lear and asked Dr. Greer to comment whether or not he would release that information to the public. That part of the interview is not included here in this transcript.]

Steven M. Greer, MD, is Director of the Disclosure Project, and CEO of Space Energy Access Systems (SEAS).

Art Bell (AB): All right, let me try this on you. Last night, I interviewed Bob Lazar - I know that you know that name - and --

Steven Greer (SG): Yeah, I know Bob.

AB: OK, fine. No matter what you think of Bob one way or the other, I got to a point in the interview where I asked Bob "Look, I'm going to ask -- there have to be other Bob Lazars out there. Send me email. Come forward. I'll give you air time. I'll put you on the air." And then I made the mistake - right after the break - of saying, "So Bob, what do you say to other people out there like yourself, should they come forward?" And he said, "Hell, no!"

SG: Right, oh yes, he has said the same thing to me because of the difficulties that people have experienced and yet - you know it's interesting, the Disclosure Project has over 500 people that we have identified. Over a hundred have come forward. None of them have had any harassment or problems associated with that. And I think that one of the problems is the "lone wolf syndrome". I think if you come forward as an individual, by yourself, trying to establish something this explosive, number one, the weight of the subject collapses that person. It can't be sustained with one person. It has to be sustained with dozens and I would posit to people maybe hundreds of people. And the other issue is that when a single person comes forward, there's an intrinsic credibility problem. Even if the person is saying everything that he says is true. But if it's something this explosive, it becomes hard to accept and when so much information is coming out about something this explosive from only one person, without independent corroboration, it sets that person up for a nightmare.

AB: Well, speaking of nightmares. Doctor, of the things that John Lear talked about, 75% which you said probably aren't so, are you discarding mostly the negative aspects of - I dont' know - either the alien presence or the way they look like, or what they've done to human beings? Or, what about the government stuff? In other words, what part of it do you buy into? You buy into the great secrecy, don't you?

SG: Well, I certainly, you know, accept the things that we have personally discovered and have multiple corroborating sources for. It's like at the New York Times, they want three separate sources. Well almost everything that we've bought into, we have more than half a dozen sources. So certainly there is extraordinary secrecy that's para-governmental, meaning that it is within certain aspects of what we might think of as the government. But in fact the Constitutional government as we think of it has very little sway over these matters and it's been really handled in an extra-constitutional manner.

AB: Do you think people have been killed over this information?

SG: Yes, I have no doubt of that.

AB: You have no doubt?

SG: Well, you - you know what I've said as well.

AB: Yes.

SG:You know we've had - before we got the security things in place that we enjoy today, our group suffered some terrible losses.

AB: I know that, but Doctor, do you really believe that if extreme prejudice has been used there would ever be an admission of that?

SG: Well, you know, it's very difficult to know whether something like that would be admitted to. I mean, some years ago, in the early first couple of years of the Clinton administration it was admitted that we deliberately infected African Americans with venereal diseases in the south.

AB: Point well taken.

SG: And we've also now admitted that there were nuclear experiments done where people were literally injected and infected with plutonium, the deadliest substance known to man. So I think that the world didn't fall apart then; it was acknowledged that those things happened. I think that many people understand that extreme measures are taken in the fog of war, or in the fog of confusion of dealing with something like this. I don't know that people would be happy with it - they weren't happy when those other things were disclosed. But of course, the point that we've always made about disclosure, and I think it has to go from disclosing information and documents about UFOs and extraterrestrial intelligence to the next phase, which is what we're working on now, and that's the disclosure of the raison d'etre for the secrecy, meaning of course the actual very powerful energy and propulsion systems that are well known in very classified, corporatized projects, but which of course would result in the termination of the fossil fuel industry including all oil, coal, gas, centralized utilities and what have you. But this sort of disclosure is something which can be a positive event and again, one of the things I said many years ago to one of the senior Pentagon people is that if a disclosure is done that hits all the "hot buttons" of paranoia, and fear and insecurity that humans have...

AB: Like God? Like our maker? Like how we got here? That sort of thing?

SG: Well, yes, which gets into very speculative areas, quite frankly. That part of the briefing I felt to be almost gratuitously speculative and beyond the scope of what would be a briefing that would be believable by most people. But I think the other issue is that a disclosure which would focus on the facts in a nonemotional way and would also point out the up side of this information and the very positive things that could redound to humanity over a period of time, that would be not a terrible event. So I think it depends on how one does this, and one would want to exercise a measure of wisdom.

AB: OK. Hold it right there. We're at the bottom of the hour.We'll have a clean shot till the top of the hour. Stand by, and we'll get right back to you. Dr. Steven Greer is my guest. From the high desert, I'm Art Bell.

[commercial and news break]

AB: Even if you assume the most benign of the truths - I think we've just agreed that people had been killed over this information to keep this information silent, and lies surely have been built upon lies for years and years and years until the stack stretches most of the way towards the moon, I suppose, and with regard to disclosure, Doctor, one crack can bring down a wall, and if we, for example, got information about new energy, the next questions would be, "Well, where the hell did you get it?", "Who'd you get it from?", "What have we done with them?", and on and on and on. In other words, the wall comes down.

SG: Well, of course, and this is one of the reasons why, aside from the obvious need for a solution to the biosphere pollution, geopolitical and other problems associated with fossil fuels, bringing out the information related to the energy and propulsion systems that have been kept secret, many of which, by the way, are not of off-planet origin, they are not of extraterrestrial origin. I remind people that a human being can invent something just as well as someone from another star system. And in fact, whether you look at the work of T. Townsend Brown, or you look at the work of Tesla, or you look at the work of Sweet and many others, there have been humans - very much humans - who have come through their minds the sort of innovations and discoveries, of the nature of time and matter and space and electromagnetism to allow for the generation of energy which is not needing the burning of fossil fuels or nuclear power or what have you. So, in fact, the issue really becomes "what's relevant to people right now", and I think what is most relevant to people right now is the harmful effects of secrecy, which very specifically has to do with keeping the world rather addicted to this little line of supertankers filled with this black stuff called oil coming out the Middle East and elsewhere.

AB: All right, well Doctor, I know that you have been on a worldwide search for the "Real McCoy", you know, alternative, over unity, whatever. I know you've been on that search. Where are you?

SG: Well, it's interesting, it's been a 2 year search. I will tell you that, as we expected at the outset, the vast majority of claims associated with this area are fraudulent. The next largest category are people who are not frauds but are simply delusional, meaning that they're sincere, but they're sincerely wrong. They believe they have something that is in fact a source of quote "free energy" and it isn't, it's a calculation problem or what have you.

AB: Right.

SG: The third category of people are people who really do have something, and I'm speaking of people who have not yet been absorbed into a corporate structure or government structure. These are people who, unfortunately we have found, all but one of them so far, and I say all but one - and we'll get to that in a moment - who have been convinced that, quote "the world isn't ready for this yet", and to keep it secret. In other words, they've gone through the same brainwashing that has kept some of the military people in line to keep these other things secret.

AB: No kidding?

SG: Yes, and what's interesting - and some of these are people who have systems that we have personally seen and tested and which would revolutionize the way the people on Earth live on the Earth. However, I believe they have been intercepted by people who appear to be friendlies to them, and who are actually counterintelligence and disinformation people who have convinced them of sort of a, sort of played into the inventor's syndrome of a Messianic complex where they're told, "Well, look you know, the world isn't ready for this yet, but when there's this eschatological solution to the human problem, sort of the "End of theWorld" scenario, we can then bring this out, phoenix like, and recreate, or resurrect, life on Earth in a positive way, and you can be the bearer of this information."

AB: Yes, but Doctor, you would have to -

SG: You would convince many of these people to then say "I'll just keep this secret."

AB: Well, wait a minute, Doctor. Let's just say I'd invented something. Let's say I had the over unity device. It's the "Real McCoy" and somebody comes to me. What could they say to me beyond "look the world isn't ready for this yet?" that would cause me to keep my mouth shut? It's not going to be enough to say -- I'm gonna say "Bull! The world has been ready for this for the last thirty years. Where have you guys been? So what else are you gonna say to keep me from releasing it?"

SG: Well, there's a combination of veiled threats and a history of threats and then a sort of grandiose appeal to people to keep these things quiet until quote "the right time". Now, of course, one of the things that we've pointed out to these gentlemen, is that if you want to take sort of a spiritual view of this - if the Divine Being has allowed the minds of men to discover these wondrous sources of energy and sciences for almost a hundred years, only to have them cast aside out of lust for power and greed and secrecy and other dark human emotions, how can you say the world isn't ready? It IS ready. It's just that the sort of power elite, if you will, aren't ready because they don't want to let go of the centralized power that is contained within the entire structure of the macro-economic structure that's based on the energy system that runs the entire world economy. But the point is that we believe that this last category of people are people who actually have discovered great things, are geniuses, but unfortunately have been convinced to keep it secret.

Now, there's one final category of people, and - we have to date only met one person who's been able to demonstrate a viable - when I say viable, something capable of putting out multiple kilowatts of power that could power a home or something -

AB: How much can you tell me about him?

SG: Well, what I can tell you is that our group, Space Energy Access Systems, has a worldwide exclusive license to try to bring this out. The person involved is offshore, is very frightened, has demonstrated to us that these technologies that he's been able to build, while somewhat crude, are actually very impressive, but to date has never been able to deliver to us a system. Now, this has been a very frustrating drama that has been going on now for about ten and a half months.

AB: Well then why doesn't that push him back a couple of categories?

SG: The only reason it doesn't is because -- he's in a gray box. What I would say is that this particular inventor is in a gray box where it's not quite clear yet if this is someone who has been unduly influenced by a third party to not cooperate, or actually has something, because we have seen and tested one of these systems.

AB: But I mean that puts the whole invention in the gray box.

SG: Well, yes. You have to separate out the behavior of the inventors from the technology itself, you really do. But in reality the result is exactly what you said, and that is, that it's in a gray box because at this point we're still waiting to take delivery.You know, we had - it's interesting - the first of March we had a private jet loaded to go and pick up this gentleman and the device and bring it back to a secure facility here, near our place here outside Washington.

AB: And what happened?

SG: A corporate lawyer and a business person that had been associated with this inventor stopped the whole transfer dead in its tracks, and it's very interesting. A whole book could be written about the drama of this little misadventure, or adventure, we're not sure which it is yet - but...

AB: On what basis was this stopped?

SG: Well, you know, the claim was that there was someone who was not being taken care of by the inventor who was supposed to be taken care of in the agreement that he had. In reality, we're not sure what was behind it. This is something that still isn't clear, and because we're dealing with a controversy and three separate countries, it's been a morass. So this is another one of the things that happens with these sort of efforts, is that you get these people surrounded by legal and business people who do everything they can to put a monkey wrench in having the technology brought forward. So the reason I say that this is in a class by itself is because we have been able to see an extraordinary phenomenon with this particular device that we cannot explain as anything but a device that is extracting electromagnetic energy that's usable from the so-called quantum vacuum space around that object. But in reality, because we have not actually taken possession of the machine or the plans to reproduce it, it remains very much in the questionable category.

AB: The claim here is that it extracted essentially zero point energy and turned it into kilowatts you could see.

SG: It wasn't quite kilowatts, maybe it was about half a kilowatt,and this is the machine that we were able to pick up and take outside, plug things into it, inspect it. There was no hidden source of power. It was one of the most extraordinary things I have personally ever seen. Now, that's the good news. The good news is that I'm quite sure that this can be done.

SG: Now, there's another category, and I would say that our group, the Disclosure Project, working with SEAS - and the people can look at what we're doing with this and also, our website. But what we have found is that there are about 3 dozen inventors who have devices in mature stages, or less ripe stages of development, and we think that with probably around 10 million dollars in research and development funds, that at least a dozen of those could be brought to commercial viability within a year or two. Unfortunately, they do need that kind of support and that's something we're looking at doing.

SG: And the next thing that we're doing, by the way, which we think is complementary to this and we're going to have information on this on our web site soon, and in fact I would say this is the first time I've ever called for this publicly is on this show tonight, is that we are going to do with the energy issue what we did with the UFO issue, and we are calling for exactly what you sort of brought up earlier, people who have been in either laboratories, corporations, government entities, or who are civilians with high credibility and high scientific credibility who have been either present during the suppression of these energy technologies or have seen them intercepted and cast aside or put into a black box, and who are willing to come forward and be identified. Now, we do know some people, some scientists, who have been involved in those projects, but they're terrified to come forward.

SG: What we're suggesting is that, let's get about a dozen of them who are highly credentialed who have been at the patent office, who have been in with an intelligence agency or corporation and have suppressed, for example, an 80 mile per gallon carburator, or who have suppressed a zero-point energy device, and who may have documentation to back this up or corroborating colleagues to back it up, and we will do next year, in the middle of this election cycle, a disclosure event, Disclosure Two, that will present to the world the fact that we do have a solution to the oil and biosphere and environmental problems, and that we have assembled people who are ready to testify and will testify quite independently again, here in Washington at the National Press Club, that in fact this has happened over the last fifty or sixty years. So, anyone who is like that and meets that criteria I just outlined can write to me personally at and we will get back in touch with them.

SG: However, I will tell you - you know, Art, I'm very careful. We're not going go forward with anything like this until we have multiple corroborating people who are highly credentialed, and highly credible, who are ready to put that information out to the public. The reason we think this has to happen very soon is because the public is being terribly mislead about not only why the world is run the way it is, but what has to be done to correct it. You know, we're looking at a 30-some billion dollar energy bill coming out of the Senate that doesn't address any of these issues, and with a fraction of a percent of that, this whole problem could be solved. So the public needs to know that there are seriously positive solutions to these energy problems that have been ruthlessly suppressed not out of national security but in point of fact, out of a ruthless sort of greed and a lust for power.

AB: Well, when you brought people forward, Doctor, credible people, and did the disclosure you did do, that wall did not come crashing down, or at least it hasn't yet, now --

SG: We never expected... See, that's a misinterpretation. That was never the intention that it would all crash down at once. This is a process. You know this thing has been building for not 50 or 60 years, Art. It's been building, the secrecy has been building for nearly 100 years.

AB: Well, alright, this is a second wall we're talking about, if you were to -

SG: It's a brick in the same wall. You see, this -- let me correct you here. This is part of the foundation of the secret apparatus and this is one of the chief cornerstones. The raison d'etre - the reason, the very purpose for much of the secrecy surrounding the UFO issue - isn't because, you know, they're here to eat us for lunch. If they'd wanted to eat us for lunch we'd be eaten already. It's because the energy and propulsion systems that explain the phenomenon of a UFO would make obsolete the need for oil and fossil fuels and these other very primitive, almost atavistic, technologies that we're's like cavemen stuff.

AB: Well then, Doctor, explain then how you can disclose one without disclosing the other?

SG: No, the whole point is that you disclose both of them and one will bring the other one out, but the thing that right now is going to have the greatest traction and relevancy to a public terrorized in the aftermath of 9-11 and who are appalled at what's going on now in the Middle East and what's probably going to be going on in the coming few months. I won't say more than that, but I think it's going to get worse before it gets better. And I think that they're going to want to see that there is a solution to the purpose - to the reason why - many of these things have occurred. You know, many people forget that Osama bin Laden was an ally of the United States when we were in fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan, or helping him fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. It wasn't until we encamped in the Middle East trying to protect oil over there in the first Gulf war and the lead up to the first Gulf war that people in that part of the world became so furious with the West. And this is not to excuse the barbaric and horrific acts of the terrorists or of 9-11. It is, however, to shed some light on the background of this. You know, Art, I have just been invited --

AB: But, but, Doctor! Uh - one second. If we're having wars, we've had wars about oil, we're having a war about oil now. We're shedding American blood for oil so, how are you ever going to release information that says that blood was shed for nothing because we already secretly had the answer to the whole damn problem and it didn't have to happen. The war didn't have to happen. The oil doesn't have to keep coming and American boys don't have to shed their blood (and women) over in Iraq or anywhere else for oil because we really don't need it. How is that ever going to come out?

SG: It has to come out, and the longer we wait, the more painful these sacrifices will be, and I predict 9-11 will look like a picnic if we don't get our act together and fix this fundamental problem of very wrong-headed secrecy that has lead to an out of control, spiraling out of control, situation on this planet. And I think that the public already thinks this. You know, you don't have to go to a conspiracy theorist to have people understand that there are powerful cartels that have maintained the status quo and that there probably have been solutions to the energy issue and the environmental issue that have been kept out of the public domain because you're dealing with a five trillion dollar a year part of the global economy. So I think that this is not something that people are going to have a hard time understanding. I think, in fact, there can be another flip side of this. Part of it is the horror that you expressed which will be one reaction, but there is another reaction and that will be "Well, thank God there's a solution!" to this.

AB: That's not a trivial reaction. That reaction would bring down governments, tear nations to shreds. Politically, socially a disaster.

SG: It could if they don't handle it right. This is the other point. If there continues to be a resistance to letting this information come out -- you know, I had an executive producer from one of the big 3 news networks who was going to do an enormous expose on what we had found with the Disclosure project and about a year ago when we were working on this with him, he came to me and said, you know, I cannot do this piece. And this is an extremely mainstream, powerful news figure.

AB: Time is very short. Why couldn't he do it?

SG: He said, "They won't let me" and I said "Who are 'they'?" and he said, "Well, you know who 'they' are" and he smiled and I said,"Yes, of course, I know who they are." But the fact is that the public is going to have to relentlessly continue to do this, and there's some good news here. I've just been invited to do a 5,000 word guest article for one of the world's most prestigious foreign affairs journals.

AB: You know what, we're going to have to end the interview on good news.

SG: That's good news.

AB: So, Dr. Greer, thank you for being here!

SG: Thank you.

AB: Hot stuff! Good night my friend!

SG: Good night.

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Working reconstruction of Peregrinusâ?Ts Wheel having cross-like stator

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Wednesday, August 29, 2007

hutchison cell

The Hutchison Effect

Related Info
Hutchison 2007 DVD- Hours of video and hundreds of closeup photos in the ultimate premiere collection DVD-Rom, only $29.99. Click Here

Related Articles- Documents & articles explaining the Hutchison Effect.
~The ULTIMATE Hutchison~
Closeup Photos of the Effect
Corum's 'Hutchison-Physics'
George Hathaway Interview
Don Adsitt's H-Effect Site
The Poltergeist Machine?
Harold Berndt on 'The Effect'
The Hutchison File
Project Venificus
Mel Winfield's Nucleonic Energy
Philadelphia Experiment 2006

Video Links - Several links to streaming online video. Buy our DVD for higher quality streams:
Hutchison Heavy-Mix
Hutchison 2006 Remix
Hutchison's 'Lost-Footage'
Lost-Footage (alt-host)
Hutchison 'Zero-Point' Footage
Harold Berndt's 2006-Footage

Related Sites- Official and fansites for the H-Effect.
The 'Official' Hutchison Site
The Hutchison Effect Online

Audio Interviews - In-depth interviews exploring the effect:
Hutchison 2004 Audio
Hutchison & Ted Gagnon
Ted Gagnon Audio
Col. John Alexander Audio

Contact Hutchison - To contact John Hutchison via email: Click Here

Scalar Mechanics - Much of Tom Bearden's research in the 1980's related to scalar mechanics and Tesla-technology that might be related to the Hutchison-Effect. Click Here

Scalar EM - When two or more Tesla coils are run in close proximity to each other, they tend to create pockets of higher and lower energy where the Hertzian waveforms intersect. Where two oscillating scalar fields meet each other, they will create an isolated "peak" that has more energy than either of the two ripples that contributed to it.

Experiments - John Hutchison's experiments have been exceeding difficult to replicate due to the extraordinarily complex arrangement of waveforms that is seemlingly required to generate the Hutchison effect.

Hutchison's experiments include the operation of between 5 and 6 Telsa-coils simultaneously, but also include a buffer-voltage that he applies through a variable-output DC Van De Graaf generator.

Hutchison 2007 DVD-Rom
Over 4 Gigs of lost-footage, spectacular photos, and exclusive interviews with inventor John Hutchison.
The 'Ultimate Hutchison'
This article documents filming the DVD, interviewing John, and offers one explanation for how the effect works.
Hutchison's Lost-Footage
Only a rumor for nearly 20-years, now you can watch the 20-minutes of original footage from the 1980's (low-res).
The Poltergeist Machine?
A reprint of George Hathaway's well-known speculative article about the Hutchison-effect.
George Hathaway Interview
A brief interview with George Hathaway - Hutchison's former colleague and well-known PhD electrical engineer.
Harold Berndt's H-Effect Article
An interesting narrative by the well-known Canadian paranormal research who filmed John in 2006.
Crystal Power Cell Footage
Footage from a Hutchison special that explores John's claim of producing overunity crystal energy.

If you're interested in learning more about Hutchison's crystal ZPE batteries, send him an email at: For a high-res WinMedia video clip of the classic 1980's experiments, click here

Antigravity & Levitation Effects

The Hutchison effect has been known to cause the spontaneous levitation of a variety of common household & workshop materials. The photos above are a stop-motion display of a glass of liquid spontaneously flying out of the top of the glass. John has also levitated a 70-pound antique cannon-ball without any electrical connections during testing.

Melts Metals at Room Temperature!

The Hutchison-Effect jellifies metals, temporarily giving them the consistency of a putty, jelly, or sometimes even water. Detailed chemical, spectrographic, and STM analysis by Dr. George Hathaway and others shows a complete breakdown in the molecular structure of these materials that remains even after they solidify. We speculate that it may occur when high-amplitude & voltage RF waves disrupt valence electrons in solids. Closeups are from our DVD-Rom, to buy it: Click Here

August 2005 DVD-Filming

American Antigravity is a 501c[3] non-profit educational foundation, and in August 2005 we traveled to visit Hutchison at his residence/lab, and spent several hours shooting interview footage and closeups of his metal samples for an educational DVD-Rom. The photos above are of John and the research team, which includes American Antigravity's Tim Ventura, Seattle telecom executive Colby Harper, paranormal researcher Harold Berndt (and son Bryan), and Microsoft project-manager Mike Shafer. To purchase the DVD: Click Here

October 2005 DVD-Filming

Boeing engineer & HFGW expert Gary Stephenson, Harold Berndt, and Tim Ventura returned in October to obtain more interview footage and give Gary & John the opportunity to discuss potential scientific explanations for the effect. Stephenson also reviewed scientific findings by Hathaway and others, as well as spectro-analysis & STM results, and numerous letters that support Hutchison's discussion of military interest from numerous government agencies.

Hutchison's 'Lost-Footage'
The "classic" Hutchison-Effect shown in over a hundred television shows worldwide is a compilation of primarily super-8mm film-footage shot by both John Hutchison and Dr. George Hathaway during the early 1980's. It was filmed freehand, with a substantial amount of jitter and camera-play, often because John was adjusting controls with the other hand, or panning rapidly to catch an unexpected manifestation of an event. While the Hutchison Effect has been documented by television crews on many other occasions, for copyright reasons that vast majority of "classic" footage shown on-air comes from this original set of Super-8mm film reels.

In 1991, Dr. George Hathaway - an early experimental partner of Hutchison's - transferred the Super8mm footage to video-format, and created a VHS cassette tape for posterity. This tape contains narration by Hathaway, who describes not only the effect, but also the context that it occurs in. This VHS tape has been referred to as the "Lost Footage", and contains approximately 20-minutes of original footage, along with interludes in which George Hathaway provides additional information on the effect. The "Lost Footage" is available online in Windows Media and Google Video formats, and also available on American Antigravity's Hutchison DVD-Rom in a higher bandwidth format.

Debunking Armchair Skeptics
As mentioned in Wikipedia, many armchair skeptics have presented explanations for how the footage of the Hutchison-Effect might be faked. Often cited as an example is a piece of video shot by Peter Von Puttkamer in 2003 showing what appears to be a toy UFO suspended on a string as evidence. The video, which aired in a Canadian television broadcast, includes a narrative that describes a single-wire transmission system that John was experimenting with on a particular day. It is not considered to be part of the "classic" Hutchison-Effect, and has no bearing on the veracity of experimental footage shot during the 1980's. The experiment and its intent has been often misinterpreted due to early streaming-video of the footage, which excluded the explanatory narrative.

Another common skeptical accusation is that Hutchison is "tilting the room" (presumably an enclosure that can be rotated on it's axis without changing the camera orientation). This is provided as evidence that simple camera trickery is used to provide the antigravity & levitation effects shown in a variety of Hutchison Effect videoclips. Close examination of the original "lost footage" clearly shows, however, that Hutchison's footage is shot in a variety of areas in concrete-floored rooms, and full-length footage often shows floor-to-ceiling camera-pans that would be impossible for a mounted camera to achieve.

To clarify for the record, the burden of proof appears to demonstrate that the Hutchison Effect is a real and demonstrable natural effect, and that Hutchison is not faking the effect for publicity, money, or other motives.

Interviews with Dr. George Hathaway, Col. John Alexander, and television crews from Japan, Europe, and several networks in North America all verify that documented effects have been witnessed by many people at once, caught on multiple cameras (both amateur and professional), and do not involve simple trickery.

Other skeptics have suggested that while the Effect is real, it is not a natural phemenon, but instead a "psychic" or "PK" (psychokinesis) effect. This seemingly outlandish notion is the result of a report filed by a Stanford Research Institute team in the 1980's, who were funded by INSCOM Colonel John Alexander and focused primarily on researching suspected psychic-phenomenon.

While this team verified that the Hutchison Effect did occur, they were unable to provide a scientific explanation for it, and thus described it as being psycho-kinetic in nature. Hutchison has speculated that the effect might also have been described as PK in order to keep it from being classified by the Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) as important to national security.

Recent Events
During DVD filming by American Antigravity, we were unable to capture the H-Effect on film due to Hutchison lacking the RF-tube equipment that he used throughout the 1980's to generate the classic effect. This inability (from 1992 to 2006) to recreate the classic Hutchison Effect is in fact the reason that Hutchison was experimenting with other projects, such as the single-wire transmission system filmed by Peter Von Puttkamer. During part of this period of time, John was also under a voluntary test restriction by the local Vancouver mayor, who previously received calls from panicked neighbors during John's experiments.

In March 2006, this situation changed when a former colleague of Hutchison's - Alex Cherechesku - moved to a new house in Vancouver, and during the move returned an original RF tube amplifier to John that had been presumed lost over a decade earlier. Hutchison immediately began new experimentation, and during filming with well-known Canadian paranormal investigator Harold Berndt, was able to demonstrate several hundred pounds of equipment slam itself into an apartment wall with no apparent causal force. American Antigravity plans a return trip to attempt to capture the effect hopefully before the end of the year in 2007.

Recent Speculation
PhD Electrical Engineer James Corum co-authored a paper in 1981 with graduate-student Terry Keech where they analyzed how the metric tensor & gravity would be modified for a time-varying electric charge. The calculations that they derived & published suggest that a time-varying electric-charge can produce a 'gravitational repulsion' or negative gravitational-mass. Click Here

International Journal of Theoretical Physics (IJTP); Volume 20, 1981, pp. 63-68; Terry Keech and James Corum "New Derivation for the field of a time-varying charge in Einstein's Field-Theory".

Dr. George Hathaway and American Antigravity's Tim Ventura believe that the jellification effects demonstrated by Hutchison may come from a disruption of valence-electron binding by resonant RF interference.

Ventura has designed an experiment to potentially verify this theory by recording the Hutchison Effect on an active sample using a logging multimeter, and then re-apply the same complex RF signal to the same signal at a later time using a linear-amplifier to match the original amplitude. Thus, while the original effect requires a complex arrangement of RF and high-voltage equipment to produce, it may be reproduced with a very simplistic and well-understood apparatus, verifying that a specific resonant signal is what causes the effect, and not psychokinetic or other causal factors.

Another notable factor has come to light since 2005 that also may play an important role in explaining the effect. Hutchison notes that the jellification effect begins in the middle of his sample (lengthwise), at least in the of long aluminum, brass, and steel bars. This may indicate that the length of the sample plays a role in coupling the RF signal that creates the effect to a specific sample.

Contact Information
To get in touch with John Hutchison, please send him an email at:


• Ten things you didn't know about Wikipedia • Pyroelectricity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain materials to generate an electrical potential when they are heated or cooled. As a result of this change in temperature, positive and negative charges move to opposite ends through migration (i.e. the material becomes polarized) and hence, an electrical potential is established.

Contents [hide]
1 Explanation
2 History
3 The pyroelectric crystal classes
4 Recent developments
5 References
6 See also

[edit] Explanation
Pyroelectricity can be visualized as one side of a triangle, where each corner represents energy states in the crystal: kinetic, electrical and thermal energy. The side between electrical and thermal corners represents the pyroelectric effect and produces no kinetic energy. The side between kinetic and electrical corners represents the piezoelectric effect and produces no heat.

Although artificial pyroelectric materials have been engineered, the effect was first discovered in minerals such as quartz and tourmaline and other ionic crystals. The pyroelectric effect is also present in both bone and tendon. The name is derived from the Greek pyr, fire, and electricity.

Pyroelectric charge in minerals develops on the opposite faces of asymmetric crystals. The direction in which the propagation of the charge tends toward is usually constant throughout a pyroelectric material, but in some materials this direction can be changed by a nearby electric field. These materials are said to exhibit ferroelectricity. All pyroelectric materials are also piezoelectric, the two properties being closely related.

Very small changes in temperature can produce an electric potential due to a materials' pyroelectricity. Passive infrared sensors are often designed around pyroelectric materials, as the heat of a human or animal from several feet away is enough to generate a difference in charge.

[edit] History
The first reference to the pyroelectric effect is in writings by Theophrastus in 314 BC, who noted that tourmaline attracted bits of straw and ash when heated. Tourmaline's properties were reintroduced in Europe in 1707 by Johann Georg Schmidt, who also noted the attractive properties of the mineral when heated. Pyroelectricity was first described -- although not named as such -- by Louis Lemery in 1717. In 1747 Linnaeus first related the phenomenon to electricity, although this was not proven until 1756 by Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus.

Research in pyroelectricity became more sophisticated in the 19th century. In 1824 Sir David Brewster gave the effect the name it has today. Both William Thomson in 1878 and Woldemar Voigt in 1897 helped develop a theory for the processes behind pyroelectricity. Pierre Curie and his brother, Jacques Curie, studied pyroelectricity in the 1880s, leading to their discovery of some of the mechanisms behind piezoelectricity. Pyroelectricity is definitely not a new concept, but research and application of the useful property continues to this day.

[edit] The pyroelectric crystal classes
Crystal structures can be divided into 32 classes, or point groups, according to the number of rotational axes and reflection planes they exhibit that leave the crystal structure unchanged. Of the thirty-two crystal classes, twenty-one are non-centrosymmetric (not having a centre of symmetry), and of these, twenty exhibit direct piezoelectricity the remaining one being the cubic class 432. Ten of these are polar (i.e. spontaneously polarise), having a dipole in their unit cell, and exhibit pyroelectricity. If this dipole can be reversed by the application of an electric field, the material is said to be ferroelectric. Twenty of the 32 crystal classes are piezoelectric. All 20 piezoelectric classes lack a center of symmetry. Any material develops a dielectric polarization when an electric field is applied, but a substance which has such a natural charge separation even in the absence of a field is called a polar material. Whether or not a material is polar is determined solely by its crystal structure. Only 10 of the 32 point groups are polar. All polar crystals are pyroelectric, so the 10 polar crystal classes are sometimes referred to as the pyroelectric classes.

Piezoelectric Crystal Classes: 1, 2, m, 222, mm2, 4, -4, 422, 4mm, -42m, 3, 32, 3m, 6, -6, 622, 6mm, -62m, 23, -43m

Pyroelectric: 1, 2, m, mm2, 3, 3m, 4, 4mm, 6, 6mm

The property of pyroelectricity is the measured change in net polarization (a vector) proportional to a change in temperature. The total pyroelectric coefficient measured at constant stress is the sum of the pyroelectric coefficients at constant strain (primary pyroelectric effect) and the piezoelectric contribution from thermal expansion (secondary pyroelectric effect). Under normal circumstances, even polar materials do not display a net dipole moment. As a consequence there are no electric dipole equivalents of bar magnets because the intrinsic dipole moment is neutralized by "free" electric charge that builds up on the surface by internal conduction or from the ambient atmosphere. Polar crystals only reveal their nature when perturbed in some fashion that momentarily upsets the balance with the compensating surface charge.

[edit] Recent developments
Progress has been made in creating artificial pyroelectric materials, usually in the form of a thin film, out of gallium nitride (GaN), caesium nitrate (CsNO3), polyvinyl fluorides, derivatives of phenylpyrazine, and cobalt phthalocyanine. (See pyroelectric crystals.) Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is a crystal exhibiting both piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, which has been used to create small-scale nuclear fusion ("pyroelectric fusion"). [1]

[edit] References
Lang, Sidney B., 2005, "Pyroelectricity: From Ancient Curiosity to Modern Imaging Tool," Physics Today, Vol 60, p.31 [2]
Gautschi, Gustav, 2002, Piezoelectric Sensorics, Springer, ISBN 3540422595 [3]

[edit] See also
Pyroelectric crystal
Pyroelectric fusion
The opposite effect is called electrocaloric effect
Retrieved from ""
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Thomas Townsend Brown discovered another effect which may be related to the electrogravitic effects observed upon condensers at high voltage. He noted that certain dielectrics, and most notably certain types of igneous rocks, exhibited a weak electrical potential. Through testing, he discerned that this is was neither piezoelectric (pressure induced voltage), or pyroelectric (heat-change induced voltage), but petrovoltaic. This is to say that there was a continuous, steady voltage across the rock, which changed very slowly, according to the lunar cycle, positions of stars, position of the sun, and such like.

For a background on petrovoltaics, (in PDF format, so please be patient with loading times) please click here

Brown spent time in the seventies on Hawaii, testing what he called his "geophysical sensors". These were foot-long cores of Hawaiian "Koolau Basalt" which had electrodes painted on, and then were electrically isolated. There were placed at various locations on the islands to locate regional differences in the noted effect. In my replication, I have been lucky enough to procure some of the same type of rock, though likely not identical, from Rick Monteverde, to whom credit for this experiment must go. The phases intended for this project are as follows:

Establish the existence of such an effect

Isolate this from the influences of pressure and heat and other interference

Determine best materials for this effect, and determine if it can be put to useful work


The first and second sections are all that I have attempted so far, and have only been able to draw preliminary conclusions......

I received my rocks from Hawaii, and was informed that they had been boiled to kill off any parasites therein. This is good for customs and excise, but also because it removes any surface residues. I received one large slice of a core, about three inches in diameter, and a quarter inch thick. I also received some loose rocks:

The rock collection
To begin with, the experimental setup was very simple, I only wished to determine whether or not there was indeed a voltage across the rocks, without a load or any other kind of circuit - just the rock. I used a small multimeter to record my findings, sensitive down to one millivolt. The meter is a Hilka 90030013 High Safety DMM.

My multimeter
To test, I spread a small amount of hydrogel (pH 7) on each face of the rock to be tested, and connected the voltmeter across it. I was very careful to position the rock so that there was no possible compression of it by my pushing the electrodes. The electrodes did not touch the rock, but were inserted into the hydrogel blobs on either face of the rock. The results were mixed............

From what I could see, the results observed seemed to be a combination of the piezoelectric effect, and another effect, which mught possibly be the petroelectric. At first, I had simply held the electrodes to the rocks with my hands, and though the metal tips of the probes never touched the rocks directly (they were in the hydrogel blobs), there might have been minute pressure changes. Usually, each of the small rocks delivered a voltage of 30-50 millivolts upon first contact, which then slowly tailed off. This is to be expected from a piezo effect, but not all of the rocks totally levelled off to nothing. Two or three of them levelled at around 12 millivolts, then remained there, even after twelve hours had elapsed.

The core slice seemed to be "dead", though I did not try all possible connections. The most crucial failure of this test it that I could not generate the super-resistances which Brown used - I was simply measuring the free-floating potential of the rock. Despite this, when I hooked up the rocks to the meter with tape to hold the electrodes in place so there could be no change in pressure - thus ruling out piezoelectricity, the small voltage remained. Some of the rocks still remained dead, whereas some continued to produce the tiny voltages noted above.

For all this, and having more or less ruled out piezoelectric effects, I still cannot rule out a chemical reaction or some kind of thermal effect. As Rick Monteverde said, the results proved inconclusive. All I am capable of saying is that certain types and shapes of rocks produce a small measurable voltage which is independent of the pressure on the rock.

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• Ten things you didn't know about Wikipedia • Heat engine
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A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. The mechanical output is called work, and the thermal energy input is called heat. Heat engines typically run on a specific thermodynamic cycle. Heat engines are often named after the thermodynamic cycle they are modeled by. They often pick up alternate names, such as gasoline/petrol, turbine, or steam engines. Heat engines can generate heat inside the engine itself or it can absorb heat from an external source. Heat engines can be open to the atmospheric air or sealed and closed off to the outside (Open or closed cycle).

In engineering and thermodynamics, a heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to mechanical work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot "source" and a cold "sink". Heat is transferred from the source, through the "working body" of the engine, to the sink, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work by exploiting the properties of a working substance (usually a gas or liquid).

Figure 1: Heat engine diagramContents [hide]
1 Overview
2 Everyday examples
3 Examples of heat engines
3.1 Phase change cycles
3.2 Gas only cycles
3.3 Liquid only cycles
3.4 Electron cycles
3.5 Magnetic cycles
3.6 Cycles used for refrigeration
4 Efficiency
5 Other criteria of heat engine performance
6 Heat engine enhancements
7 Heat engine processes
8 References
9 See also
10 External links

[edit] Overview
Heat engines are often confused with the cycles they attempt to mimic. Typically when describing the physical device the term 'engine' is used. When describing the model the term 'cycle' is used.

In thermodynamics, heat engines are often modeled using a standard engineering model such as the Otto cycle (4-stroke/2-stroke). Actual data from an operating engine, one is called an indicator diagram, is used to refine the model. All modern implementations of heat engines do not exactly match the thermodynamic cycle they are modeled by. One could say that the thermodynamic cycle is an ideal case of the mechanical engine. One could equally say that the model doesn't quite perfectly match the mechanical engine. However, understanding is gained from the simplified models, and ideal cases they may represent.

In general terms, the larger the difference in temperature between the hot source and the cold sink, the larger is the potential thermal efficiency of the cycle. On Earth, the cold side of any heat engine is limited to close to the ambient temperature of the environment, or not much lower than 300 kelvins, so most efforts to improve the thermodynamic efficiencies of various heat engines focus on increasing the temperature of the source, within material limits.

The efficiency of various heat engines proposed or used today ranges from 3 percent [1](97 percent waste heat) for the OTEC ocean power proposal through 25 percent for most automotive engines, to 45 percent for a supercritical coal plant, to about 60 percent for a steam-cooled combined cycle gas turbine. All of these processes gain their efficiency (or lack thereof) due to the temperature drop across them.

OTEC uses the temperature difference of ocean water on the surface and ocean water from the depths, a small difference of perhaps 25 degrees Celsius, and so the efficiency must be low. The combined cycle gas turbines use natural-gas fired burners to heat air to near 1530 degrees Celsius, a difference of a large 1500 degrees Celsius, and so the efficiency can be large when the steam-cooling cycle is added in. [2]

[edit] Everyday examples
Examples of everyday heat engines include: the steam engine, the diesel engine, and the gasoline (petrol) engine in an automobile. A common toy that is also a heat engine is a drinking bird. All of these familiar heat engines are powered by the expansion of heated gases. The general surroundings are the heat sink, providing relatively cool gases which, when heated, expand rapidly to drive the mechanical motion of the engine.

[edit] Examples of heat engines
It is important to note that although some cycles have a typical combustion location (internal external), they often can be implemented as the other combustion cycle. For example, John Ericsson developed an external heated engine running on a cycle very much like the earlier Diesel cycle. In addition, the externally heated engines can often be implemented in open or closed cycles.

What this boils down to is there are thermodynamic cycles and a large number of ways of implementing them with mechanical devices called engines.

[edit] Phase change cycles
In these cycles and engines, the working fluids are gases and liquids. The engine converts the working fluid from a gas to a liquid.

Rankine cycle (classical steam engine)
Regenerative cycle (steam engine more efficient than Rankine cycle)
Vapor to liquid cycle (Drinking bird)
Liquid to solid cycle (Frost heaving — water changing from ice to liquid and back again can lift rock up to 60 m.)
Solid to gas cycle (Dry ice cannon — Dry ice sublimes to gas.)

[edit] Gas only cycles
In these cycles and engines the working fluid are always like gas:

Carnot cycle (Carnot heat engine)
Ericsson Cycle (Caloric Ship John Ericsson)
Stirling cycle (Stirling engine, thermoacoustic devices)
Internal combustion engine (ICE):
Otto cycle (eg. Gasoline/Petrol engine, high-speed diesel engine)
Diesel cycle (eg. low-speed diesel engine)
Atkinson Cycle (Atkinson Engine)
Brayton cycle or Joule cycle originally Ericsson Cycle (gas turbine)
Lenoir cycle (e.g., pulse jet engine)
Miller cycle

[edit] Liquid only cycles
In these cycles and engines the working fluid are always like liquid:

Stirling Cycle (Malone engine)

[edit] Electron cycles
Thermoelectric (Peltier-Seebeck effect)
Thermionic emission
Thermotunnel cooling

[edit] Magnetic cycles
Thermo-magnetic motor (Tesla)

[edit] Cycles used for refrigeration
A refrigerator is a heat pump: a heat engine in reverse. Work is used to create a heat differential. Many cycles can run in reverse to move heat from the cold side to the hot side, making the cold side cooler and the hot side hotter. Internal combustion engine versions of these cycles are, by their nature, not reversible.

Vapor-compression refrigeration
Stirling cryocooler
Gas-absorption refrigerator
Air cycle machine
Vuilleumier refrigeration

[edit] Efficiency
The efficiency of a heat engine relates how much useful power is output for a given amount of heat energy input.

From the laws of thermodynamics:

dW = − PdV is the work extracted from the engine. (It is negative since work is done by the engine.)
dQh = ThdSh is the heat energy taken from the high temperature system. (It is negative since heat is extracted from the source, hence ( − dQh) is positive.)
dQc = TcdSc is the heat energy delivered to the cold temperature system. (It is positive since heat is added to the sink.)
In other words, a heat engine absorbs heat energy from the high temperature heat source, converting part of it to useful work and delivering the rest to the cold temperature heat sink.

In general, the efficiency of a given heat transfer process (whether it be a refrigerator, a heat pump or an engine) is defined informally by the ratio of "what you get" to "what you put in."

In the case of an engine, one desires to extract work and puts in a heat transfer.

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ideal imaginary heat engine such as the Carnot heat engine, although other engines using different cycles can also attain maximum efficiency. Mathematically, this is due to the fact that in reversible processes, the change in entropy of the cold reservoir is the negative of that of the hot reservoir (i.e., dSc = − dSh), keeping the overall change of entropy zero. Thus:

where Th is the absolute temperature of the hot source and Tc that of the cold sink, usually measured in kelvin. Note that dSc is positive while dSh is negative; in any reversible work-extracting process, entropy is overall not increased, but rather is moved from a hot (high-entropy) system to a cold (low-entropy one), decreasing the entropy of the heat source and increasing that of the heat sink.

The reasoning behind this being the maximal efficiency goes as follows. It is first assumed that if a more efficient heat engine than a Carnot engine is possible, then it could be driven in reverse as a heat pump. Mathematical analysis can be used to show that this assumed combination would result in a net decrease in entropy. Since, by the second law of thermodynamics, this is forbidden, the Carnot efficiency is a theoretical upper bound on the efficiency of any process.

Empirically, no engine has ever been shown to run at a greater efficiency than a Carnot cycle heat engine.

Figure 2: Carnot cycle efficiency
Figure 3: Carnot cycle efficiencyHere are two plots, Figure 2 and Figure 3, for the Carnot cycle efficiency. One plot indicates how the cycle efficiency changes with an increase in the heat addition temperature for a constant compressor inlet temperature, while the other indicates how the cycle efficiency changes with an increase in the heat rejection temperature for a constant turbine inlet temperature.

[edit] Other criteria of heat engine performance
One problem with the ideal Carnot efficiency as a criterion of heat engine performance is the fact that by its nature, any maximally-efficient Carnot cycle must operate at an infinitesimal temperature gradient. This is due to the fact that any transfer of heat between two bodies at differing temperatures is irreversible, and therefore the Carnot efficiency expression only applies in the infinitesimal limit. The major problem with that is that the object of most heat engines is to output some sort of power, and infinitesimal power is usually not what is being sought.

A different measure of heat engine efficiency is given by the endoreversible process, which is identical to the Carnot cycle except in that the two processes of heat transfer are not reversible. As derived in Callen (1985), the efficiency for such a process is given by:

This model does a better job of predicting how well real-world heat engines can do, as can be seen in the following table (Callen):

Efficiencies of Power Plants Power Plant Tc (°C) Th (°C) η (Carnot) η (Endoreversible) η (Observed)
West Thurrock (UK) coal-fired power plant 25 565 0.64 0.40 0.36
CANDU (Canada) nuclear power plant 25 300 0.48 0.28 0.30
Larderello (Italy) geothermal power plant 80 250 0.33 0.178 0.16

As shown, the endoreversible efficiency much more closely models the observed data.

[edit] Heat engine enhancements
Engineers have studied the various heat engine cycles extensively in an effort to improve the amount of usable work they could extract from a given power source. The Carnot Cycle limit cannot be reached with any gas-based cycle, but engineers have worked out at least two ways to possibly go around that limit, and one way to get better efficiency without bending any rules.

1) Increase the temperature difference in the heat engine. The simplest way to do this is to increase the hot side temperature, and is the approach used in modern combined-cycle gas turbines. Unfortunately, NOx production and material limits (melting the turbine blades) place a hard limit to how hot you can make a workable heat engine. Modern gas turbines are about as hot as they can become and still maintain acceptable NOx pollution levels. Another way of increasing efficiency is to lower the output temperature. Once new method of doing so is to use mixed chemical working fluids, and then exploit the changing behavior of the mixtures. One of the most famous is the so-called Kalina Cycle, which uses a 70/30 mix of ammonia and water as its working fluid. This mixture allows the cycle to generate useful power at considerably lower temperatures than most other processes.

2) Exploit the physical properties of the working fluid. The most common such exploit is the use of water above the so-called critical point, or so-called supercritical steam. The behavior of fluids above their critical point changes radically, and with materials such as water and carbon dioxide it is possible to exploit those changes in behavior to extract greater thermodynamic efficiency from the heat engine, even if it is using a fairly conventional Brayton or Rankine cycle. A newer and very promising material for such applications is CO2. SO2 and xenon have also been considered for such applications, although SO2 is a little toxic for most.

3) Exploit the chemical properties of the working fluid. A fairly new and novel exploit is to use exotic working fluids with advantageous chemical properties. One such is nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a toxic component of smog, which has a natural dimer as di-nitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4). At low temperature, the N2O4 is compressed and then heated. The increasing temperature causes each N2O4 to break apart into two NO2 molecules. This lowers the molecular weight of the working fluid, which drastically increases the efficiency of the cycle. Once the NO2 has expanded through the turbine, it is cooled by the heat sink, which causes it to recombine into N2O4. This is then fed back to the compressor for another cycle. Such species as aluminum bromide (Al2Br6), NOCl, and Ga2I6 have all been investigated for such uses. To date, their drawbacks have not warranted their use, despite the efficiency gains that can be realized. [3]

[edit] Heat engine processes
Cycle/Process Compression Heat Addition Expansion Heat Rejection
Power cycles normally with external combustion
Carnot isentropic isothermal isentropic isothermal
Stirling isothermal isometric isothermal isometric
Ericsson isothermal isobaric isothermal isobaric
Power cycles normally with internal combustion
Otto (Petrol) adiabatic isometric adiabatic isometric
Diesel adiabatic isobaric adiabatic isometric
Brayton (Jet) adiabatic isobaric adiabatic isobaric

Each process is one of the following:

isothermal (at constant temperature, maintained with heat added or removed from a heat source or sink)
isobaric (at constant pressure)
isometric/isochoric (at constant volume)
adiabatic (no heat is added or removed from the system during adiabatic process)

[edit] References
^ en:Ocean_thermal_energy_conversion
^ U.S. Department of Energy • Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laborator: Advanced Turbine Systems. Advancing The Gas Turbine Power Industry
^ Nuclear Reactors Concepts and Thermodynamic Cycles
Kroemer, Herbert; Kittel, Charles (1980). Thermal Physics, 2nd ed., W. H. Freeman Company. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9.
Callen, Herbert B. (1985). Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0-471-86256-8.

[edit] See also
Reciprocating engine for a general description of the mechanics of piston engines
Heat pump
Carnot heat engine
Timeline of heat engine technology
Heat engine classifications
[show] Thermodynamic cycles
Cycles normally with external combustion
Gas cycles without phasechange - hot air engine cycles
Bell Coleman cycle · Brayton/Joule cycle; (Externally heated) · Carnot cycle
· Stirling cycle · Pseudo Stirling cycle is same as Adiabatic Stirling cycle [1] [2]
· Ericsson cycle · Stoddard cycle · Ported constant volume cycle [3]
· Vuilleumier cycle

Cycles with phasechange
Kalina cycle · Rankine cycle · Regenerative cycle · Two phased Stirling cycle [4]
Cycles normally with internal combustion
Atkinson cycle · Brayton/Joule cycle · Diesel cycle · Otto cycle · Lenoir cycle · Miller cycle
Cycle mixing
Combined cycle · HEHC cycle [5][6] · Mixed/Dual Cycle
Not categorized
Claude cycle [7] · Fickett-Jacobs cycle · Gifford-McMahon cycle [8] · Hirn cycle
· Humphrey cycle · Linde-Hampson cycle

[show]Heat engine types/configurations using thermodynamic cycles (Power cycles)
Stroke number and stroke parting
Crower six stroke · Four-stroke cycle · Scuderi Split Cycle Engine · One-stroke cycle · Six stroke engine · Two-stroke cycle
Different work volume types (incl. Pistonless rotary engine)
Britalus Rotary Engine · Combustion chamber · Controlled Combustion Engine · Jet engine · Orbital engine · Piston engine · Quasiturbine · Rocket engine · Swing-piston engine · Toroidal engine · Trochilic engine · Tschudi engine · Twingle engine · Wankel engine
Different work volume ports and main forms of valves
Cylinder head porting · D slide valve · Four-stroke cycle engine valves · Manifold · Multi-valve · Piston valve · Poppet valve · Rocket engine nozzles · Sleeve valve
Different pistons layouts
Bourke engine · Delta engine · Double acting/differential cylinder · Opposed piston engine · Radial engine · Rotary engine · Single cylinder engine · Stelzer engine · Straight engine
Different main rotational motion mechanisms or arc to (or even almost) pistons back-and-forth.
Sector straight-line linkage [9] · Connecting rod · Coomber Rotary Engine [10] · Crank Substitute Engine [11] · Crankshaft · Evans linkage [12] · Cam · Parallel motion · Peaucellier-Lipkin linkage · Piston rod · QRMC Stirling/HydraLink [13] · Revolving Cylinder Engine [14] · Rhombic drive · Scotch yoke · Swashplate · Swashplate engine · Watt's linkage
One-way stop-and-go like rotational motion mechanisms to rotation.
Toroidal engine · Trochilic engine

[edit] External links
Heat Engine
Webarchive backup: Refrigeration Cycle Citat: "...The refrigeration cycle is basically the Rankine cycle run in reverse..."
Red Rock Energy Solar Heliostats: Heat Engine Projects Citat: "...Choosing a Heat Engine..."
Overview of heat engine types
The rotary piston array machine
The gyroscope combustion motor
The external combustion air engine
Retrieved from ""
Categories: Fundamental physics concepts | Heat | Energy conversion | HVAC | Thermodynamics
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